Today it's hard to imagine how you could live without cell phones. I involuntarily remembered the old song: "We were both in the drugstore, and I was looking for you in the cinema ...". Today such a song is absurd. And yet, just 10 years ago, a mobile phone was only available for the middle class, 15 years ago it was a luxury, and 20 years ago there were none.
The first cell phone.
The idea of cellular communication was developed by specialists of the American corporation AT & T Bell Labs. The first talk on this topic arose in 1946, the idea was promulgated in 1947. Since that time, work on the creation of a new device has begun in different parts of the world.
It should be noted that despite all the advantages of the new type of communication, from the time of the idea's appearance to the appearance of the first commercial sample, a whole 37 years have passed. All other technical innovations of the twentieth century were implemented much faster.
The first example of such a connection in 1946, presented by Bell as an idea, was similar to a hybrid of a conventional telephone and a radio station located in the trunk of a car. The radio station in the trunk weighed 12 kg, the communication console was in the cabin, the antenna had to hole up the roof.
The radio station could transmit a signal to the automatic telephone station and in such a way call the ordinary telephone. Calling the mobile phone was much more difficult: you had to call the PBX, call the station number, so that they would be connected manually. To speak, it was necessary to press the button, and to hear the answer - to release it. Plus, there was an abundance of interference and a small range of action.
Mobile communication in a socialist camp
In Moscow, the first prototype of a portable phone LK-1 was demonstrated by engineer L. I. Kupriyanovich in 1957. This sample was also quite impressive: it weighed 3 kg. But the range of action reached 30 km, and the operating time of the station without changing batteries is 20-30 hours.
Kupriyanovich did not stop there: In 1958 he presented a device weighing 500 grams, in 1961 the world saw an apparatus weighing only 70 g. The radius of its action was 80 km. The work was carried out at the Voronezh Research Institute of Communications (VNIIS).
Development of Kupriyanovich was adopted by the Bulgarians. As a result, at the Moscow exhibition "Inforga-65" a Bulgarian mobile communication kit appeared: a base station with 12 numbers and a telephone. The phone's dimensions roughly corresponded to the handset. Then the release of mobile devices RAT-05 and ATRT-05 with the base station RATS-10 began. It was used on construction sites and energy facilities.
But in the USSR work on the device also continued in Moscow, Moldova, and Belarus. The result was "Altai" - a full-featured device designed for cars. In the hands of wearing it was difficult due to the base station and batteries. However, ambulances, taxis, heavy vehicles were equipped with this connection.
The competition between Bell and Motorola ended with the victory of Motorola: in the spring of 1973 gloating Cooper rang his competitors from the street on his new pipe, which he easily held in his hand. This was the first call from a cell phone, marking the beginning of a new era. But research and development continued for a long 15 years.
Commercial mobile phone appeared in the USA in 1983. The first mass production was mastered by Motorola. The success of its devices was stunning, and by the year 1990 the number of subscribers reached 11 million. By 1995, their number had grown to 90.7 million, and by 2003 it was 1.29 billion.
In Russia, the first cell phones appeared in 1991. The handset with the connection cost 4000 dollars. The first operator with the GSM standard came to us in 1994. Those phones were still quite cumbersome, you can not put it in your pocket. Some wealthy people (and only they were available cell phones) often preferred to keep a special person who wore the device behind them.
Many companies joined the development and production of mobile phones. For example, Nokia in 1998 released a handset with WAP support for Nokia 7110. At the same time, a two-line phone and a phone with a touch screen appeared.
Currently, statistics claims that 9 people of 10 has the mobile phone.